Difference between revisions of "Wiki:IBM"

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{{Wikipage|companyName =IBM|Wikidescription=<div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">This article is about the American multinational technology company. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="IBM (disambiguation)">IBM (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Big Blue" redirects here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Big_Blue_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Big Blue (disambiguation)">Big Blue (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">American multinational technology and consulting corporation</div>
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<table class="infobox vcard" style="width:22em"><caption class="fn org">International Business Machines Corporation</caption><tr><td colspan="2" class="logo" style="text-align:center"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:IBM_logo.svg" class="image"><img alt="IBM logo.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/200px-IBM_logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="80" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/300px-IBM_logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/400px-IBM_logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="400" /></a></div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:List_of_legal_entity_types_by_country" title="List of legal entity types by country">Type</a></div></th><td class="category" style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Public_company" title="Public company">Public</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Ticker_symbol" title="Ticker symbol">Traded as</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><div class="plainlist"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:New_York_Stock_Exchange" title="New York Stock Exchange">NYSE</a>: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nyse.com/quote/XNYS:IBM">IBM</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average">DJIA Component</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:S%26P_100" title="S&P 100">S&P 100 Component</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:S%26P_500" class="mw-redirect" title="S&P 500">S&P 500 Component</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:International_Securities_Identification_Number" title="International Securities Identification Number">ISIN</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="https://tools.wmflabs.org/isin/?language=de&isin=US4592001014">US4592001014</a></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Industry</th><td class="category" style="line-height:1.35em;"><div class="hlist">
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<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Cloud_computing" title="Cloud computing">Cloud computing</a></li>
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<li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Cognitive_computing" title="Cognitive computing">Cognitive computing</a></li></ul>
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</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Founded</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">June 16, 1911<span class="noprint">; 107 years ago</span><span style="display:none"> (<span class="bday dtstart published updated">1911-06-16</span>)</span> (as <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company</a>)<br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Endicott,_New_York" title="Endicott, New York">Endicott</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wiki:New_York_(state)" title="New York (state)">New York</a>, U.S.<sup id="cite_ref-certificate1911_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-certificate1911-1">[1]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Founder</th><td class="agent" style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Charles_Ranlett_Flint" title="Charles Ranlett Flint">Charles Ranlett Flint</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Headquarters</th><td class="adr" style="line-height:1.35em;"><div style="display:inline" class="locality"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Armonk,_New_York" title="Armonk, New York">Armonk, New York</a></div>, <div style="display:inline" class="country-name"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:United_States" title="United States">U.S.</a></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Area served</div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">177 countries<sup id="cite_ref-fortune20160201_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fortune20160201-2">[2]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Key people</div></th><td class="agent" style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Ginni_Rometty" title="Ginni Rometty">Ginni Rometty</a><br />(<span style="font-size:85%;">Chairman, President and CEO</span>)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Products</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:List_of_IBM_products" title="List of IBM products">See IBM products</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Revenue</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$ 79.139 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Earnings_before_interest_and_taxes" title="Earnings before interest and taxes">Operating income</a></div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$11.400 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Net_income" title="Net income">Net income</a></div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$5.753 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Asset" title="Asset">Total assets</a></span></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="nowrap"><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$125.35 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Equity_(finance)" title="Equity (finance)">Total equity</a></span></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$17.594 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Number of employees</div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">366,600 (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Website</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="url"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/us-en/">www.ibm.com</a></span></td></tr></table>
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<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000;">
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<td class="mbox-image"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Thomas J Watson Sr.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/100px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg" decoding="async" width="100" height="98" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/150px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/200px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1514" data-file-height="1479" /></a></td>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist" style="line-height:1.1em"><div class="haudio">
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<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" title="File:Think Thomas J Watson Sr.ogg">"THINK"</a></div>
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<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_0" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="29" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (57 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="56651" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/4/49/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="105520" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.de.srt&action=raw&ctype=text%2Fx-srt" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="de" label="Deutsch (de) subtitles" data-mwtitle="TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.de.srt" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.en.srt&action=raw&ctype=text%2Fx-srt" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="en" label="English (en) subtitles" data-mwtitle="TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.en.srt" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons" data-dir="ltr" /></audio></div></div>
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<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Thomas_J._Watson" title="Thomas J. Watson">Thomas J. Watson</a>, who led IBM from 1914 to 1956, discussing the company's motto <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Think_(IBM)" title="Think (IBM)">"THINK"</a></div></div></td></tr>
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<tr><td colspan="2" class="mbox-text" style="line-height:1.1em"><hr /><span><i>Problems playing this file? See <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Help:Media" title="Help:Media">media help</a>.</i></span></td></tr></table>
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<p><b>International Business Machines Corporation</b> (<b>IBM</b>) is an American <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Multinational_corporation" title="Multinational corporation">multinational</a> <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Information_technology" title="Information technology">information technology</a> company headquartered in <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Armonk,_New_York" title="Armonk, New York">Armonk, New York</a>, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911 as the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company</a> (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.
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</p><p>IBM produces and sells computer <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_hardware" title="Computer hardware">hardware</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Middleware" title="Middleware">middleware</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_software" class="mw-redirect" title="Computer software">software</a>, and provides <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Internet_hosting_service" title="Internet hosting service">hosting</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Consultant" title="Consultant">consulting services</a> in areas ranging from <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Mainframe_computer" title="Mainframe computer">mainframe computers</a> to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Nanotechnology" title="Nanotechnology">nanotechnology</a>. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Patents" class="mw-redirect" title="Patents">patents</a> generated by a business (as of  2019<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IBM&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>) for 26 consecutive years.<sup id="cite_ref-patents_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-patents-5">[5]</a></sup> Inventions by IBM include the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Automated_teller_machine" title="Automated teller machine">automated teller machine</a> (ATM), the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Floppy_disk" title="Floppy disk">floppy disk</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Hard_disk_drive" title="Hard disk drive">hard disk drive</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Magnetic_stripe_card" title="Magnetic stripe card">magnetic stripe card</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Relational_model" title="Relational model">relational database</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:SQL" title="SQL">SQL programming language</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Universal_Product_Code" title="Universal Product Code">UPC barcode</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dynamic_random-access_memory" title="Dynamic random-access memory">dynamic random-access memory</a> (DRAM). The <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_mainframe" title="IBM mainframe">IBM mainframe</a>, exemplified by the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_System/360" title="IBM System/360">System/360</a>, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.
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</p><p>IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Market_(economics)" title="Market (economics)">markets</a>. This includes <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Corporate_spin-off" title="Corporate spin-off">spinning off</a> printer manufacturer <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Lexmark" title="Lexmark">Lexmark</a> in 1991 and the sale of <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Personal_computer" title="Personal computer">personal computer</a> (<a href="/wiki/Wiki:ThinkPad" title="ThinkPad">ThinkPad</a>/<a href="/wiki/Wiki:ThinkCentre" title="ThinkCentre">ThinkCentre</a>) and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:X86" title="X86">x86</a>-based <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_System_x" class="mw-redirect" title="IBM System x">server</a> businesses to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Lenovo" title="Lenovo">Lenovo</a> (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as <a href="/wiki/Wiki:PricewaterhouseCoopers" title="PricewaterhouseCoopers">PwC Consulting</a> (2002), <a href="/wiki/Wiki:SPSS" title="SPSS">SPSS</a> (2009), <a href="/wiki/Wiki:The_Weather_Company" title="The Weather Company">The Weather Company</a> (2016), and  <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Red_Hat" title="Red Hat">Red Hat</a> (2018). Also in 2014, IBM announced that it would go "<a href="/wiki/Wiki:Fabless_manufacturing" title="Fabless manufacturing">fabless</a>", continuing to design <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Semiconductors" class="mw-redirect" title="Semiconductors">semiconductors</a>, but offloading manufacturing to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:GlobalFoundries" title="GlobalFoundries">GlobalFoundries</a>.
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</p><p>
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Nicknamed <b>Big Blue</b>, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average">Dow Jones Industrial Average</a> and one of the world's largest employers, with (as of  2017<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IBM&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>) over 380,000 employees. Known as "IBMers", IBM employees have been awarded five <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Nobel_Prize" title="Nobel Prize">Nobel Prizes</a>, six <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Turing_Award" title="Turing Award">Turing Awards</a>, ten <a href="/wiki/Wiki:National_Medal_of_Technology" class="mw-redirect" title="National Medal of Technology">National Medals of Technology (USA)</a> and five <a href="/wiki/Wiki:National_Medal_of_Science" title="National Medal of Science">National Medals of Science (USA)</a>.</p><div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references">
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<li id="cite_note-certificate1911-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-certificate1911_1-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Certificate of Incorporation of Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co, 14th day of June 1911</span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-fortune20160201-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fortune20160201_2-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://fortune.com/2016/02/01/ibm-employee-performance-reviews/">"IBM Is Blowing Up Its Annual Performance Review"</a>. <i>fortune.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">July 22,</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=fortune.com&rft.atitle=IBM+Is+Blowing+Up+Its+Annual+Performance+Review&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffortune.com%2F2016%2F02%2F01%2Fibm-employee-performance-reviews%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-10K-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.google.com/finance?q=NYSE%3AIBM&fstype=ii">"IBM Corporation Financials Statements"</a>. <i>United States Securities and Exchange Commission</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=United+States+Securities+and+Exchange+Commission&rft.atitle=IBM+Corporation+Financials+Statements&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Ffinance%3Fq%3DNYSE%253AIBM%26fstype%3Dii&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/annualreport/2017/assets/downloads/IBM_Annual_Report_2017.pdf">"2017 IBM Annual Report"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. IBM.com.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=2017+IBM+Annual+Report&rft.pub=IBM.com&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fannualreport%2F2017%2Fassets%2Fdownloads%2FIBM_Annual_Report_2017.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-patents-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-patents_5-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/blogs/think/2019/01/ibm-marks-more-than-a-quarter-century-of-patent-leadership-with-record-year/">"IBM Marks More Than a Quarter Century of Patent Leadership with Record Year"</a>. IBM<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">9 January</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=IBM+Marks+More+Than+a+Quarter+Century+of+Patent+Leadership+with+Record+Year&rft.pub=IBM&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fblogs%2Fthink%2F2019%2F01%2Fibm-marks-more-than-a-quarter-century-of-patent-leadership-with-record-year%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</div>|Wikidescription=<div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">This article is about the American multinational technology company. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="IBM (disambiguation)">IBM (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Big Blue" redirects here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Big_Blue_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Big Blue (disambiguation)">Big Blue (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">American multinational technology and consulting corporation</div>
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<table class="infobox vcard" style="width:22em"><caption class="fn org">International Business Machines Corporation</caption><tr><td colspan="2" class="logo" style="text-align:center"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:IBM_logo.svg" class="image"><img alt="IBM logo.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/200px-IBM_logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="200" height="80" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/300px-IBM_logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/400px-IBM_logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="400" /></a></div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:List_of_legal_entity_types_by_country" title="List of legal entity types by country">Type</a></div></th><td class="category" style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Public_company" title="Public company">Public</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Ticker_symbol" title="Ticker symbol">Traded as</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><div class="plainlist"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:New_York_Stock_Exchange" title="New York Stock Exchange">NYSE</a>: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nyse.com/quote/XNYS:IBM">IBM</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average">DJIA Component</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:S%26P_100" title="S&P 100">S&P 100 Component</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:S%26P_500" class="mw-redirect" title="S&P 500">S&P 500 Component</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:International_Securities_Identification_Number" title="International Securities Identification Number">ISIN</a></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="https://tools.wmflabs.org/isin/?language=de&isin=US4592001014">US4592001014</a></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Industry</th><td class="category" style="line-height:1.35em;"><div class="hlist">
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<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Cloud_computing" title="Cloud computing">Cloud computing</a></li>
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<li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Cognitive_computing" title="Cognitive computing">Cognitive computing</a></li></ul>
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</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Founded</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">June 16, 1911<span class="noprint">; 107 years ago</span><span style="display:none"> (<span class="bday dtstart published updated">1911-06-16</span>)</span> (as <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company</a>)<br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Endicott,_New_York" title="Endicott, New York">Endicott</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wiki:New_York_(state)" title="New York (state)">New York</a>, U.S.<sup id="cite_ref-certificate1911_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-certificate1911-1">[1]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Founder</th><td class="agent" style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Charles_Ranlett_Flint" title="Charles Ranlett Flint">Charles Ranlett Flint</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Headquarters</th><td class="adr" style="line-height:1.35em;"><div style="display:inline" class="locality"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Armonk,_New_York" title="Armonk, New York">Armonk, New York</a></div>, <div style="display:inline" class="country-name"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:United_States" title="United States">U.S.</a></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Area served</div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">177 countries<sup id="cite_ref-fortune20160201_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fortune20160201-2">[2]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Key people</div></th><td class="agent" style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Ginni_Rometty" title="Ginni Rometty">Ginni Rometty</a><br />(<span style="font-size:85%;">Chairman, President and CEO</span>)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Products</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:List_of_IBM_products" title="List of IBM products">See IBM products</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Revenue</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$ 79.139 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Earnings_before_interest_and_taxes" title="Earnings before interest and taxes">Operating income</a></div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$11.400 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Net_income" title="Net income">Net income</a></div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$5.753 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Asset" title="Asset">Total assets</a></span></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="nowrap"><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$125.35 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Equity_(finance)" title="Equity (finance)">Total equity</a></span></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> US$17.594 billion (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Number of employees</div></th><td style="line-height:1.35em;">366,600 (2017)<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right:0.5em;">Website</th><td style="line-height:1.35em;"><span class="url"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/us-en/">www.ibm.com</a></span></td></tr></table>
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<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000;">
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<tr>
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<td class="mbox-image"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Thomas J Watson Sr.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/100px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg" decoding="async" width="100" height="98" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/150px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/200px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1514" data-file-height="1479" /></a></td>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist" style="line-height:1.1em"><div class="haudio">
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<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" title="File:Think Thomas J Watson Sr.ogg">"THINK"</a></div>
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<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_0" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="29" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (57 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="56651" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/4/49/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="105520" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.de.srt&action=raw&ctype=text%2Fx-srt" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="de" label="Deutsch (de) subtitles" data-mwtitle="TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.de.srt" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.en.srt&action=raw&ctype=text%2Fx-srt" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="en" label="English (en) subtitles" data-mwtitle="TimedText:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.en.srt" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons" data-dir="ltr" /></audio></div></div>
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<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Thomas_J._Watson" title="Thomas J. Watson">Thomas J. Watson</a>, who led IBM from 1914 to 1956, discussing the company's motto <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Think_(IBM)" title="Think (IBM)">"THINK"</a></div></div></td></tr>
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<tr><td colspan="2" class="mbox-text" style="line-height:1.1em"><hr /><span><i>Problems playing this file? See <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Help:Media" title="Help:Media">media help</a>.</i></span></td></tr></table>
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<p><b>International Business Machines Corporation</b> (<b>IBM</b>) is an American <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Multinational_corporation" title="Multinational corporation">multinational</a> <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Information_technology" title="Information technology">information technology</a> company headquartered in <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Armonk,_New_York" title="Armonk, New York">Armonk, New York</a>, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911 as the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company</a> (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.
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</p><p>IBM produces and sells computer <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_hardware" title="Computer hardware">hardware</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Middleware" title="Middleware">middleware</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_software" class="mw-redirect" title="Computer software">software</a>, and provides <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Internet_hosting_service" title="Internet hosting service">hosting</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Consultant" title="Consultant">consulting services</a> in areas ranging from <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Mainframe_computer" title="Mainframe computer">mainframe computers</a> to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Nanotechnology" title="Nanotechnology">nanotechnology</a>. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Patents" class="mw-redirect" title="Patents">patents</a> generated by a business (as of  2019<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IBM&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>) for 26 consecutive years.<sup id="cite_ref-patents_5-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-patents-5">[5]</a></sup> Inventions by IBM include the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Automated_teller_machine" title="Automated teller machine">automated teller machine</a> (ATM), the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Floppy_disk" title="Floppy disk">floppy disk</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Hard_disk_drive" title="Hard disk drive">hard disk drive</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Magnetic_stripe_card" title="Magnetic stripe card">magnetic stripe card</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Relational_model" title="Relational model">relational database</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:SQL" title="SQL">SQL programming language</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Universal_Product_Code" title="Universal Product Code">UPC barcode</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dynamic_random-access_memory" title="Dynamic random-access memory">dynamic random-access memory</a> (DRAM). The <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_mainframe" title="IBM mainframe">IBM mainframe</a>, exemplified by the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_System/360" title="IBM System/360">System/360</a>, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.
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</p><p>IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Market_(economics)" title="Market (economics)">markets</a>. This includes <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Corporate_spin-off" title="Corporate spin-off">spinning off</a> printer manufacturer <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Lexmark" title="Lexmark">Lexmark</a> in 1991 and the sale of <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Personal_computer" title="Personal computer">personal computer</a> (<a href="/wiki/Wiki:ThinkPad" title="ThinkPad">ThinkPad</a>/<a href="/wiki/Wiki:ThinkCentre" title="ThinkCentre">ThinkCentre</a>) and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:X86" title="X86">x86</a>-based <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_System_x" class="mw-redirect" title="IBM System x">server</a> businesses to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Lenovo" title="Lenovo">Lenovo</a> (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as <a href="/wiki/Wiki:PricewaterhouseCoopers" title="PricewaterhouseCoopers">PwC Consulting</a> (2002), <a href="/wiki/Wiki:SPSS" title="SPSS">SPSS</a> (2009), <a href="/wiki/Wiki:The_Weather_Company" title="The Weather Company">The Weather Company</a> (2016), and  <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Red_Hat" title="Red Hat">Red Hat</a> (2018). Also in 2014, IBM announced that it would go "<a href="/wiki/Wiki:Fabless_manufacturing" title="Fabless manufacturing">fabless</a>", continuing to design <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Semiconductors" class="mw-redirect" title="Semiconductors">semiconductors</a>, but offloading manufacturing to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:GlobalFoundries" title="GlobalFoundries">GlobalFoundries</a>.
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</p><p>
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Nicknamed <b>Big Blue</b>, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average">Dow Jones Industrial Average</a> and one of the world's largest employers, with (as of  2017<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IBM&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>) over 380,000 employees. Known as "IBMers", IBM employees have been awarded five <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Nobel_Prize" title="Nobel Prize">Nobel Prizes</a>, six <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Turing_Award" title="Turing Award">Turing Awards</a>, ten <a href="/wiki/Wiki:National_Medal_of_Technology" class="mw-redirect" title="National Medal of Technology">National Medals of Technology (USA)</a> and five <a href="/wiki/Wiki:National_Medal_of_Science" title="National Medal of Science">National Medals of Science (USA)</a>.</p><div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references">
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<li id="cite_note-certificate1911-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-certificate1911_1-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Certificate of Incorporation of Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co, 14th day of June 1911</span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-fortune20160201-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fortune20160201_2-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://fortune.com/2016/02/01/ibm-employee-performance-reviews/">"IBM Is Blowing Up Its Annual Performance Review"</a>. <i>fortune.com</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">July 22,</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=fortune.com&rft.atitle=IBM+Is+Blowing+Up+Its+Annual+Performance+Review&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffortune.com%2F2016%2F02%2F01%2Fibm-employee-performance-reviews%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-10K-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.google.com/finance?q=NYSE%3AIBM&fstype=ii">"IBM Corporation Financials Statements"</a>. <i>United States Securities and Exchange Commission</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=United+States+Securities+and+Exchange+Commission&rft.atitle=IBM+Corporation+Financials+Statements&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2Ffinance%3Fq%3DNYSE%253AIBM%26fstype%3Dii&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/annualreport/2017/assets/downloads/IBM_Annual_Report_2017.pdf">"2017 IBM Annual Report"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. IBM.com.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=2017+IBM+Annual+Report&rft.pub=IBM.com&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fannualreport%2F2017%2Fassets%2Fdownloads%2FIBM_Annual_Report_2017.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-patents-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-patents_5-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/blogs/think/2019/01/ibm-marks-more-than-a-quarter-century-of-patent-leadership-with-record-year/">"IBM Marks More Than a Quarter Century of Patent Leadership with Record Year"</a>. IBM<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">9 January</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=IBM+Marks+More+Than+a+Quarter+Century+of+Patent+Leadership+with+Record+Year&rft.pub=IBM&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fblogs%2Fthink%2F2019%2F01%2Fibm-marks-more-than-a-quarter-century-of-patent-leadership-with-record-year%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</div>|Wikidescription=<div class="mw-parser-output"><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">This article is about the American multinational technology company. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="IBM (disambiguation)">IBM (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">"Big Blue" redirects here. For other uses, see <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Big_Blue_(disambiguation)" class="mw-disambig" title="Big Blue (disambiguation)">Big Blue (disambiguation)</a>.</div>
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<p class="mw-empty-elt">
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</p>
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<div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">American multinational technology and consulting corporation</div>
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<table class="infobox vcard" style="width:22em"><caption class="fn org">International Business Machines Corporation</caption><tr><td colspan="2" class="logo" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:IBM_logo.svg" class="image"><img alt="IBM logo.svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/250px-IBM_logo.svg.png" decoding="async" width="250" height="100" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/375px-IBM_logo.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/51/IBM_logo.svg/500px-IBM_logo.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="1000" data-file-height="400" /></a></td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="logo" style="text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg" class="image"><img alt="IBM CHQ - Oct 2014.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b5/IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg/220px-IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b5/IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg/330px-IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b5/IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg/440px-IBM_CHQ_-_Oct_2014.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3264" data-file-height="2448" /></a><div>IBM headquarters in Armonk, New York.</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:List_of_legal_entity_types_by_country" title="List of legal entity types by country">Type</a></div></th><td class="category" style="line-height: 1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Public_company" title="Public company">Public</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Ticker_symbol" title="Ticker symbol">Traded as</a></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><div class="plainlist"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:New_York_Stock_Exchange" title="New York Stock Exchange">NYSE</a>: <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nyse.com/quote/XNYS:IBM">IBM</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average">DJIA Component</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:S%26P_100" title="S&P 100">S&P 100 Component</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:S%26P_500" class="mw-redirect" title="S&P 500">S&P 500 Component</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:International_Securities_Identification_Number" title="International Securities Identification Number">ISIN</a></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><span class="plainlinks nourlexpansion"><a class="external text" href="https://tools.wmflabs.org/isin/?language=en&isin=US4592001014">US4592001014</a></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Industry</th><td class="category" style="line-height: 1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Cloud_computing" title="Cloud computing">Cloud computing</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Artificial_intelligence" title="Artificial intelligence">Artificial intelligence</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_hardware" title="Computer hardware">Computer hardware</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_software" class="mw-redirect" title="Computer software">Computer software</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Predecessor</th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Bundy_Manufacturing_Company" title="Bundy Manufacturing Company">Bundy Manufacturing Company</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company#Computing_Scale_Company_of_America" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing Scale Company of America</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:International_Time_Recording_Company" class="mw-redirect" title="International Time Recording Company">International Time Recording Company</a><br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company#Tabulating_Machine_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Tabulating Machine Company</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Founded</th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;">June 16, 1911<span class="noprint">; 108 years ago</span><span style="display:none"> (<span class="bday dtstart published updated">1911-06-16</span>)</span> (as <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company</a>)<br /><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Endicott,_New_York" title="Endicott, New York">Endicott</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wiki:New_York_(state)" title="New York (state)">New York</a>, U.S.<sup id="cite_ref-certificate1911_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-certificate1911-1">[1]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Founders</th><td class="agent" style="line-height: 1.35em;"><div class="plainlist"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Charles_Ranlett_Flint" title="Charles Ranlett Flint">Charles Ranlett Flint</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Thomas_J._Watson_Sr." class="mw-redirect" title="Thomas J. Watson Sr.">Thomas J. Watson Sr.</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Headquarters</th><td class="adr" style="line-height: 1.35em;"><div style="display: inline;" class="locality"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Armonk,_New_York" title="Armonk, New York">Armonk, New York</a></div>, <div style="display: inline;" class="country-name"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:United_States" title="United States">U.S.</a></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Area served</div></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;">177 countries<sup id="cite_ref-fortune20160201_2-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-fortune20160201-2">[2]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Key people</div></th><td class="agent" style="line-height: 1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Ginni_Rometty" title="Ginni Rometty">Ginni Rometty</a><br />(<span style="font-size:85%;">Chairman, President and CEO</span>)</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Products</th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:List_of_IBM_products" title="List of IBM products">See IBM products</a></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Services</th><td class="category" style="line-height: 1.35em;"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Outsourcing" title="Outsourcing">Outsourcing</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Consulting" class="mw-redirect" title="Consulting">Consulting</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Managed_services" title="Managed services">Managed services</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Revenue</th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /><span style="white-space: nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:United_States_dollar" title="United States dollar">US$</a></span>79.59 billion (2018)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Earnings_before_interest_and_taxes" title="Earnings before interest and taxes">Operating income</a></div></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>13.21 billion (2018)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Net_income" title="Net income">Net income</a></div></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><img alt="Increase" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/11px-Increase2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Increase" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/17px-Increase2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b0/Increase2.svg/22px-Increase2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>8.72 billion (2018)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Asset" title="Asset">Total assets</a></span></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><span class="nowrap"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>123.38 billion (2018)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></span></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Equity_(finance)" title="Equity (finance)">Total equity</a></span></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><img alt="Decrease" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/11px-Decrease2.svg.png" decoding="async" title="Decrease" width="11" height="11" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/17px-Decrease2.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Decrease2.svg/22px-Decrease2.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="300" data-file-height="300" /> <span style="white-space: nowrap">US$</span>16.79 billion (2018)<sup id="cite_ref-10K_3-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-10K-3">[3]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;"><div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;">Number of employees</div></th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;">350,600 (2018)<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">[4]</a></sup></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="padding-right: 0.5em;">Website</th><td style="line-height: 1.35em;"><span class="url"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/">www<wbr />.ibm<wbr />.com</a></span></td></tr></table>
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<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small noprint" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000;">
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<tr>
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<td class="mbox-image"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg" class="image"><img alt="Thomas J Watson Sr.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/100px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg" decoding="async" width="100" height="98" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/150px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg/200px-Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1514" data-file-height="1479" /></a></td>
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<td class="mbox-text plainlist" style="line-height:1.1em"><div class="haudio">
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<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:File:Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" title="File:Think Thomas J Watson Sr.ogg">"THINK"</a></div>
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<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_0" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="29" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (57 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="56651" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/4/49/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg/Think_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="105520" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AThink_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg&lang=de&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="de" label="Deutsch (de) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /><track src="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/api.php?action=timedtext&title=File%3AThink_Thomas_J_Watson_Sr.ogg&lang=en&trackformat=srt&origin=%2A" kind="subtitles" type="text/x-srt" srclang="en" label="English (en) subtitles" data-dir="ltr" /></audio></div></div>
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<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0"><a href="/wiki/Wiki:Thomas_J._Watson" title="Thomas J. Watson">Thomas J. Watson</a>, who led IBM from 1914 to 1956, discussing the company's motto <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Think_(IBM)" title="Think (IBM)">"THINK"</a></div></div></td></tr>
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<tr><td colspan="2" class="mbox-text" style="line-height:1.1em"><hr /><i class="selfreference">Problems playing this file? See <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Help:Media" title="Help:Media">media help</a>.</i></td></tr>
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</table>
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<p><b>IBM</b> is an American <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Multinational_corporation" title="Multinational corporation">multinational</a> <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Information_technology" title="Information technology">information technology</a> company headquartered in <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Armonk,_New_York" title="Armonk, New York">Armonk, New York</a>, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Endicott,_New_York" title="Endicott, New York">Endicott, New York</a>, as the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computing-Tabulating-Recording_Company" title="Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company">Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company</a> (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">[5]</a></sup>
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</p><p>IBM produces and sells computer <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_hardware" title="Computer hardware">hardware</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Middleware" title="Middleware">middleware</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Computer_software" class="mw-redirect" title="Computer software">software</a>, and provides <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Internet_hosting_service" title="Internet hosting service">hosting</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Consultant" title="Consultant">consulting services</a> in areas ranging from <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Mainframe_computer" title="Mainframe computer">mainframe computers</a> to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Nanotechnology" title="Nanotechnology">nanotechnology</a>. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Patents" class="mw-redirect" title="Patents">patents</a> generated by a business (as of 2019<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IBM&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>) for 26 consecutive years.<sup id="cite_ref-patents_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-patents-6">[6]</a></sup> Inventions by IBM include the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Automated_teller_machine" title="Automated teller machine">automated teller machine</a> (ATM), the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Floppy_disk" title="Floppy disk">floppy disk</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Hard_disk_drive" title="Hard disk drive">hard disk drive</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Magnetic_stripe_card" title="Magnetic stripe card">magnetic stripe card</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Relational_model" title="Relational model">relational database</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:SQL" title="SQL">SQL programming language</a>, the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Universal_Product_Code" title="Universal Product Code">UPC barcode</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dynamic_random-access_memory" title="Dynamic random-access memory">dynamic random-access memory</a> (DRAM). The <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_mainframe" title="IBM mainframe">IBM mainframe</a>, exemplified by the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_System/360" title="IBM System/360">System/360</a>, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.
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</p><p>IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Market_(economics)" title="Market (economics)">markets</a>. This includes <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Corporate_spin-off" title="Corporate spin-off">spinning off</a> printer manufacturer <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Lexmark" title="Lexmark">Lexmark</a> in 1991 and the sale of <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Personal_computer" title="Personal computer">personal computer</a> (<a href="/wiki/Wiki:ThinkPad" title="ThinkPad">ThinkPad</a>/<a href="/wiki/Wiki:ThinkCentre" title="ThinkCentre">ThinkCentre</a>) and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:X86" title="X86">x86</a>-based <a href="/wiki/Wiki:IBM_System_x" class="mw-redirect" title="IBM System x">server</a> businesses to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Lenovo" title="Lenovo">Lenovo</a> (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as <a href="/wiki/Wiki:PricewaterhouseCoopers" title="PricewaterhouseCoopers">PwC Consulting</a> (2002), <a href="/wiki/Wiki:SPSS" title="SPSS">SPSS</a> (2009), <a href="/wiki/Wiki:The_Weather_Company" title="The Weather Company">The Weather Company</a> (2016), and <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Red_Hat" title="Red Hat">Red Hat</a> (2019). Also in 2015, IBM announced that it would go "<a href="/wiki/Wiki:Fabless_manufacturing" title="Fabless manufacturing">fabless</a>", continuing to design <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Semiconductors" class="mw-redirect" title="Semiconductors">semiconductors</a>, but offloading manufacturing to <a href="/wiki/Wiki:GlobalFoundries" title="GlobalFoundries">GlobalFoundries</a>.
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</p><p>
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Nicknamed <b>Big Blue</b>, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Dow_Jones_Industrial_Average" title="Dow Jones Industrial Average">Dow Jones Industrial Average</a> and one of the world's largest employers, with (as of 2018<sup class="plainlinks noexcerpt noprint asof-tag update" style="display:none;"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IBM&action=edit">[update]</a></sup>) over 350,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBMers is India.<sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">[7]</a></sup> IBM employees have been awarded five <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Nobel_Prize" title="Nobel Prize">Nobel Prizes</a>, six <a href="/wiki/Wiki:Turing_Award" title="Turing Award">Turing Awards</a>, ten <a href="/wiki/Wiki:National_Medal_of_Technology" class="mw-redirect" title="National Medal of Technology">National Medals of Technology (USA)</a> and five <a href="/wiki/Wiki:National_Medal_of_Science" title="National Medal of Science">National Medals of Science (USA)</a>.</p><div class="mw-references-wrap"><ol class="references">
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<li id="cite_note-certificate1911-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-certificate1911_1-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation">"Certificate of Incorporation of Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co", <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=_8tFAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA3428"><i>Appendix to Hearings Before the Committee on Patents, House of Representatives, Seventy-Fourth Congress, on H. R. 4523, Part III</i></a>, United States Government Printing Office, 1935 [Incorporation paperwork filed June 16, 1911]</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=bookitem&rft.atitle=Certificate+of+Incorporation+of+Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co&rft.btitle=Appendix+to+Hearings+Before+the+Committee+on+Patents%2C+House+of+Representatives%2C+Seventy-Fourth+Congress%2C+on+H.+R.+4523%2C+Part+III&rft.pub=United+States+Government+Printing+Office&rft.date=1935&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D_8tFAQAAMAAJ%26pg%3DPA3428&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</li>
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<li id="cite_note-fortune20160201-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-fortune20160201_2-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation news"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://fortune.com/2016/02/01/ibm-employee-performance-reviews/">"IBM Is Blowing Up Its Annual Performance Review"</a>. <i>Fortune</i>. February 1, 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">July 22,</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=article&rft.jtitle=Fortune&rft.atitle=IBM+Is+Blowing+Up+Its+Annual+Performance+Review&rft.date=2016-02-01&rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Ffortune.com%2F2016%2F02%2F01%2Fibm-employee-performance-reviews%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-10K-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-10K_3-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/annualreport/assets/downloads/IBM_Annual_Report_2018.pdf">"IBM Corporation Financials Statements"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>IBM</i>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=IBM&rft.atitle=IBM+Corporation+Financials+Statements&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fannualreport%2Fassets%2Fdownloads%2FIBM_Annual_Report_2018.pdf&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/annualreport/assets/downloads/IBM_Annual_Report_2018.pdf#page=68">"2018 IBM Annual Report"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. IBM.com.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=2018+IBM+Annual+Report&rft.pub=IBM.com&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fannualreport%2Fassets%2Fdownloads%2FIBM_Annual_Report_2018.pdf%23page%3D68&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite id="CITEREF10-K2018" class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/51143/104746919000712/0001047469-19-000712-index.htm">"10-K"</a>. <i>10-K</i><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">June 1,</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&rft.genre=unknown&rft.jtitle=10-K&rft.atitle=10-K&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sec.gov%2FArchives%2Fedgar%2Fdata%2F51143%2F104746919000712%2F0001047469-19-000712-index.htm&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-patents-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-patents_6-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.ibm.com/blogs/think/2019/01/ibm-marks-more-than-a-quarter-century-of-patent-leadership-with-record-year/">"IBM Marks More Than a Quarter Century of Patent Leadership with Record Year"</a>. IBM<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">January 9,</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=IBM+Marks+More+Than+a+Quarter+Century+of+Patent+Leadership+with+Record+Year&rft.pub=IBM&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibm.com%2Fblogs%2Fthink%2F2019%2F01%2Fibm-marks-more-than-a-quarter-century-of-patent-leadership-with-record-year%2F&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Goel, Vindu (September 28, 2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/28/technology/ibm-india.html">"IBM Now Has More Employees in India Than in the U.S."</a> – via NYTimes.com.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&rft.genre=unknown&rft.btitle=IBM+Now+Has+More+Employees+in+India+Than+in+the+U.S.&rft.date=2017-09-28&rft.aulast=Goel&rft.aufirst=Vindu&rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2017%2F09%2F28%2Ftechnology%2Fibm-india.html&rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AIBM" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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Revision as of 11:52, 27 September 2019

International Business Machines Corporation
Public
Traded as
ISINUS4592001014
IndustryCloud computing
Artificial intelligence
Computer hardware
Computer software
PredecessorBundy Manufacturing Company
Computing Scale Company of America
International Time Recording Company
Tabulating Machine Company
FoundedJune 16, 1911; 108 years ago (1911-06-16) (as Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company)
Endicott, New York, U.S.[1]
Founders
Headquarters,
Area served
177 countries[2]
Key people
Ginni Rometty
(Chairman, President and CEO)
ProductsSee IBM products
Services
RevenueIncreaseUS$79.59 billion (2018)[3]
Increase US$13.21 billion (2018)[3]
Increase US$8.72 billion (2018)[3]
Total assetsDecrease US$123.38 billion (2018)[3]
Total equityDecrease US$16.79 billion (2018)[3]
Number of employees
350,600 (2018)[4]
Websitewww.ibm.com

IBM is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York.[5]

IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. patents generated by a business (as of 2019) for 26 consecutive years.[6] Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.

IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets. This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2019). Also in 2015, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries.

Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with (as of 2018) over 350,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBMers is India.[7] IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology (USA) and five National Medals of Science (USA).

  1. ^ "Certificate of Incorporation of Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co", Appendix to Hearings Before the Committee on Patents, House of Representatives, Seventy-Fourth Congress, on H. R. 4523, Part III, United States Government Printing Office, 1935 [Incorporation paperwork filed June 16, 1911]
  2. ^ "IBM Is Blowing Up Its Annual Performance Review". Fortune. February 1, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e "IBM Corporation Financials Statements" (PDF). IBM.
  4. ^ "2018 IBM Annual Report" (PDF). IBM.com.
  5. ^ "10-K". 10-K. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  6. ^ "IBM Marks More Than a Quarter Century of Patent Leadership with Record Year". IBM. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  7. ^ Goel, Vindu (September 28, 2017). "IBM Now Has More Employees in India Than in the U.S." – via NYTimes.com.

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