Wiki:Multinational corporation

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Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC). The VOC is often considered by many to be the world's first formally listed public company and the first historical model of the multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) in its modern sense.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

A multinational corporation (MNC)[10] is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.[11][12] Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. However, a firm that owns and controls 51% of a foreign subsidiary also controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country and therefore would also meet the criterion, even if that foreign affiliate generates only a few percent of its revenue.[13] A multinational corporation can also be referred to as a multinational enterprise (MNE), a transnational enterprise (TNE), a transnational corporation (TNC), an international corporation, or a stateless corporation.[14] There are subtle but real differences between these terms.

Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies. Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards. They have also become associated with multinational tax havens and base erosion and profit shifting tax avoidance activities.

  1. ^ Brook, Timothy: Vermeer's Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World. (Bloomsbury Press, 2008, pp. 288, ISBN 978-1596915992)
  2. ^ Sayle, Murray (5 April 2001). "Japan goes Dutch". London Review of Books. Vol. 23 no. 7. The Netherlands United East Indies Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC), founded in 1602, was the world's first multinational, joint-stock, limited liability corporation – as well as its first government-backed trading cartel. Our own East India Company, founded in 1600, remained a coffee-house clique until 1657, when it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in the Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known.
  3. ^ Phelan, Ben (7 Jan 2013). "Dutch East India Company: The World's First Multinational". PBS.org. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  4. ^ Hagel, John; Brown, John Seely (12 March 2013). "Institutional Innovation: Creating Smarter Organizations". Deloitte Insights. [...] In 1602, the Dutch East India Company was formed. It was a new type of institution: the first multinational company, and the first to issue public stock. These innovations allowed a single company to mobilize financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs.
  5. ^ Taylor, Bryan (6 Nov 2013). "The Rise and Fall of the Largest Corporation in History". BusinessInsider.com. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  6. ^ Roberts, Keith (15 March 2015). "Corporate Colonization of Wisconsin, Part IV — The Dutch East India Company and the Koch Wisconsin Company". MiddleWisconsin.org. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  7. ^ Partridge, Matthew (20 March 2015). "This day in history: 20 March 1602: Dutch East India Company formed". MoneyWeek.com. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  8. ^ Grenville, Stephen (3 November 2017). "The first global supply chain". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  9. ^ Hennigan, Michael (22 January 2018). "First Modern Economy: Myths on tulips & most valuable firm in history". Finfacts.ie (Irish Finance and Business Portal). Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  10. ^ "Conference proceedings literature added to ISI's chemistry citation index". Applied Catalysis A: General. 107 (1): N4–N5. December 1993. doi:10.1016/0926-860x(93)85126-a. ISSN 0926-860X.
  11. ^ Pitelis, Christos; Roger Sugden (2000). The nature of the transnational firm. Routledge. p. H72. ISBN 0-415-16787-6.
  12. ^ "Multinational Corporations".
  13. ^ What is MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION (MNC)?, accessed 18 August 2018
  14. ^ Roy D. Voorhees, Emerson L. Seim, and John I. Coppett, "Global Logistics and Stateless Corporations," Transportation Practitioners Journal 59, 2 (Winter 1992): 144-51.

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